The Topic Summary Crosstables include each question asked in the OVBC 2023 Typology Study, and all possible response categories, just like the annotated questionnaire. However, crosstables also include columns for various subgroups. For example, the excerpt below examines what percentage of men selected each possible response to Q2; what percentage of women selected each possible response to Q2; and what percentage of non-binary people or people with another gender identity selected each possible response to Q2, right alongside the percentages for the full sample.

The full crosstables can be downloaded from the bottom of this page.

We would like to acknowledge and thank our research partner, PolicyInteractive.

**HOW TO READ CROSSTABLES**

In the example chart below, rows represent the three possible response options to the question “All things considered, do you think things in the U.S. are headed in the right direction, or is it off on the wrong track?”

#### 1) Responses

The three response options are: “Right Direction,” “Wrong Track,” and “Don’t know/Not sure.” [Italicized responses indicate the answer choices that were given to a respondent have been collapsed together. (i.e. If we wanted to see all people who agree from the options “Strongly agree” and “Somewhat agree,” there may be an iltalicized “Agree” option as well)]

#### 2) Total Results

The first column, or banner, is the “Total” column. It reflects the overall results, or the total amount and percentages in each response category.

#### 3) Subgroup Results

The next two columns reflect the results of a subgroup, “Gender.” The gender subgroup is composed of Men, Women, and Non-binary or other gender identification, each with their own column. Each subgroup is assigned a letter, for example: Men=A Woman=B, Non-binary=C.

#### 4) Statistically Significant Differences

If a pair of cells has a difference which is statistically significant, the larger of the two cells is flagged with the letter of the opposite column. The test shows the difference in women’s attitudes about things being headed in the right direction is statistically significantly different than those of men, which is signified by a “A” (the letter given to Men) under the women’s results for “Right direction.”

#### 5) Significance Test

The footnote indicates the level of significance (sig=.05). This level of significance means that 5% of the time, the difference between how the two groups feel about the direction is due to random chance, while 95% of the time the difference is meaningful.

**STATEMENT OF LIMITATIONS:**

Any sampling of opinions or attitudes is subject to a margin of error, which represents the difference between a sample of a given population and the total population. The margin of error is a statistic expressing the amount of random sampling error in a survey’s results and differs by sample size, as reflected in the table below.

N=1500 | N=1400 | N=1200 | N=1000 | N=800 | N=600 | N=500 | N=400 | N=300 | N=200 | N=150 | N=100 | N=50 |

+/- 2.5% | +/- 2.6% | +/- 2.8% | +/- 3.1% | +/- 3.5% | +/- 4.0% | +/- 4.4% | +/- 4.9% | +/- 5.7% | +/- 6.9% | +/- 8.0% | +/- 9.8% | +/- 13.8% |